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The Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) was first discovered in the early 1900s and described in many “write my essay” works. However, the disorder was not considered seriously and discussions related to it were minimal. In 1914, Sigmund Freud developed a diagnostic trend for Narcissism that identified the condition as an ordinary existence of human the psyche. This got outlined as the energy driving instincts meant to aid human survival. The most fundamental elements in this included an individual’s ego, self-awareness, and the perfection of an outward image. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) identifies NPD as an insidious trend of grandiosity, desire for attention, increased self-love, obsession with success, and the lack of compassion for others.

The DSM-5 lists two major types of this condition as Cerebral Narcissism and Somatic Narcissism. In the first case, patients present beliefs that they possess superior and exemplified levels of intellect. They are quick at identifying intellectual drawbacks of other individuals and showing them extreme levels of contempt. In essence, they aim at making their audience admire, praise, and marvel at their outstanding skills, abilities, and performances. The latter has increased preoccupation with beauty, power, appearance, fashion, and other factors that make them outstandingly admirable. Nonetheless, most research outcomes propose that both the cerebral and somatic traits exist in all narcissists. However, the reason one has to prevail over the other is because one occurs as a recessive while the other a dominant type.

To be diagnosed with NPD, individuals must present a range of various symptomatic characteristics. The first of these is increased infatuation with matchlessness and exclusivity. Most narcissists feel that they are way above the abilities of the ordinary individuals. They also want to be associated with triumph and eminence. As a result, they narrate their accomplishments in unique and unmatchable ways. Based on these, they demand respect, praise, admiration, and appreciation. They remain egotistic and heartless. While they desire and demand special treatment, they subject others to demeaning treatment. Specifically, they develop negative trends towards individuals they consider worth competing them. To such personalities, they become jealous and arrogant. In sum, their characteristic traits focus on elevating themselves to very special zones where others cannot belong.[6]

No research cases have managed to come up with the exact cause of NPD. However, different theories point to genetic and upbringing links that affect an individual. It is highly probable that NPD gets inherited with genetic orientations that are more prevalent in males. In this genetic trend, the cerebral and somatic traits appear in every the dominant and recessive genes playing roles as dictated by genetic patterns. The latter case arises from social interactions that individuals undergo during their early lives. While some may be over-pampered, others get abused and manipulated. They then develop emotional fixations of wanting to keep the good feelings and repel the bad ones. The condition gets treated through psychotherapy in individual and group settings with the aim of restoring acceptable social focus.

In conclusion, NPD was first discovered in the 1900s. However, detailed research on the condition increased in the latter half of the twentieth century.  The DSM-5 identifies NPD as an insidious trend of grandiosity, desire for attention, increased self-love, obsession with success, and the lack of empathy for others. Narcissists remain obsessed with self-love and success at the expense of others. Treatment options include individual and group counseling aimed at restoring acceptable social tendencies.


Baker, Richard. Narcissistic and Avoidant Personality and Thought Suppression. Idaho: Idaho State University Press, 2013.

Gabbard, Glen. Gabbard’s Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2012.

Joshua, Miller. The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Findings, and Treatments. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.

Mackewn, Jennifer. Developing Gestalt Counselling: A Field Theoretical and Relational Model of Contemporary Gestalt Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage Publications, 2013.